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Wednesday, 17 April 2013

Standardized Testing

Single-Sex vs. Coed
The topic was chosen in order to elaborate the manner in up to date research shows how single-gender classrooms is profitable to boys.
Title of the Article: “Effects of single-sex secondary schools on student achievement and attitudes”
Studies regarding, single-sex education have been conducted in USA. These studies indicate that single-sex education may be more beneficial for boys than for girls, at least in the elementary school age group. A research was conducted by researches based at University of Michigan. These researchers’ contrasted students who graduated from Catholic single-sex high schools with those students that graduated from Catholic coeducational private schools. Their findings revealed that boys who attended single-sex schools obtained better marks in three subjects as compared to those who attended coed high schools. The first subject is reading. The second subject is writing. The last subject in which boys performed well in single-sex schools is mathematics. Various studies have also indicated that learners especially boys who attend single-sex schools didn’t simply enhanced academic accomplishment. Furthermore, they had first and foremost, higher educational ambitions than did boys who attended coed high schools. Second, the boys had more confidence in their capabilities. Last, the boys had a more constructive feeling toward academics. And, girls at the single-sex schools had less stereotyped ideas about what women can and cannot do.

Six years ago, Benjamin Wright who was the then principal of the Thurgood Marshall Rudimentary School, which is a public school in a low-income region of Seattle, Washington, separated his school according to sex. However, no change was noted. The class sizes did not change. Furthermore, the tutor salaries remained the same. The only change was that was observed was now single-sex classroom. This uncomplicated change resulted to spectacular impact. Mr. Wright stated that the coed setting that was in existence prior to the changes that were effected was characterized by the staff of the school taking care of crises. He argued that at that particular time, they were able to train students efficiently as a result of the introduction of the single-sex system. As much as bullying cases are concerned, Mr. Wright noted that this misconduct had reduced significantly to a large extent. He further stated that prior to the introduction of single-sex system; the performance of boys went up from the tenth (10th) percentile to the seventh third (73rd) percentile. This is with regards to the Washington Assessment of Student Learning.
 However, the performance of the girls did not change. It remained at the same percentile. Thus he noted that the single-sex setting was spectacularly effectual for boys. Nonetheless, it was crystal clear that it had no immense impact on girls as far as the standardized test scores are concerned. At this point, it is important to bear in mind that the girls were by now attaining significantly higher marks than the boys. Mr. Benjamin Wright afterward left so as to aid the Philadelphia public school system. However, the Thurgood Marshall Rudimentary School has sustained its high academic accomplishment ever since his exit in addition to the single-sex classroom format (Lee and Bryk, 1986).
This article regarding the advantages of single-sex schools to boys was extremely important to me. It has helped me in understanding the various benefits associated with boys attending single-sex schools for instance enhanced academic achievements and higher educational ambitions. The article supported the topic since it has revealed the manner in which boys in Catholic single-sex schools performed well than those in coed schools. The article was well written since it explained facts regarding the advantages of boys attending single-sex schools. The article revealed new facts which I initially did not have ideas regarding them or which t had partial information regarding them.
Building Mentoring Relationships between Staff and Students
The topic was chosen in order to discuss educative mentoring in our schools.
Title of the Article: “Teacher Mentoring: An analysis of roles, activities, and conditions”
Mentoring is more and more being acknowledged as an influential and effectual tool in the endorsement of transformation and growth inside organizations. Mentoring has huge possible gains, not just to the institution but as well as to the person concerned. In a web explanation, mentoring is viewed as first and foremost developmental, second, thoughtful, third, sharing and lastly assisting association where 1 individual devote time, knowledge, and effort in improving another individual’s development, know how and skills, and reacts to decisive requirements in the life of that individual in means which make ready the person for better output or even accomplishment in life.
Mentoring may be defined as the practice in which 1 individual provides assistance, second, guidance, third, advice and last, backing in order to make easy the erudition or growth of another individual. Within the outlook of Balance Resource Pack which is backed by Fund for the Development of Teaching and Learning, it’s a secret association in which the mentor assists the mentee in their individual or vocation development. S/he achieves this via sharing their know-how and permitting the mentee to take accountability for their growth. The mentoring relationship is between a mentor and a protégé. The protégé is an individual directed and safeguarded by a more knowledgeable individual. A mentor is somebody who is more knowledgeable. Furthermore, s/he takes particular concentration towards the growth of another, chiefly a student. There are six tasks of the mentor. First, s/he offers provides resources and chance for growth. Second, she aids the student in resolving problems. Third, offers paradigm and conveys skills. Fourth, offers individual backing and inspiration. Fifth, aids the student set lofty although attainable aim and make sensible plans. Last, the mentor’s responsibility engrosses offering back-up and sustenance. Thus s/he assists in putting up self-assurance, demanding unconstructive mind-set and providing positive response.
 Educative mentoring is basically foundered on determined objectives for the prospective sway which mentor tutors may have.  The element of flexibility is significant. This is attributed to the fact that it will permit mentors to expand chances for dynamic learning which is founded on learners’ present and future requirements and also capabilities.
There are 2 types of mentoring relationships. The first type is formal and the other one is informal. As far as the informal relationship is concerned, it expands on its own between associates. Conversely, formal mentoring means assigned association frequently connected with organizational mentoring programme. This programme is devised in such a manner as to endorse worker maturity or defend at peril kids and teens (Wildman, 1992).
The article has enabled me to understand the definition of mentoring and the roles of a mentor. Furthermore, it has assisted in identifying the various benefits of mentoring. The article has supported my topic of choosing that is “Educative Mentoring”.  According to me, it was well written since it addressed the topic well. It revealed the six main roles of a mentor.

Educational Changes Brought About by Transformational Leadership
This topic was chosen in order to address some of the changes that occur within a school owing to the introduction of transformational leadership.
Title of the Article: “Leading Educational Change: Reflections on the Practice of Instructional and Transformational Leadership”
The impacts of transformational leadership on institutional learning in the framework of school enhancement endeavors have been investigated by various scholars. Transformational leadership practices are useful in nurturing institutional learning. First, transformational leadership practices promote spirit building. Second, the practices promote modeling. Third, the practices enhance customs building and supporting high performance prospect. Last practices, evidence concerning the connection between transformational leadership and institutional expansion and efficiency were discovered to be greater than whichever other impacts. The evidence recommended that charismatic headship arouses enhancement. Various studies have shown that transformational leadership has resulted to a favorable custom and culture within a school.
The investigation of these findings offers evidence for the advantages of transformational headship. The investigations simply incorporated studies from the year nineteen hundred and eighty to nineteen hundred and ninety five (1995).
In spite of the plenty of research carried out by various scholars all over the world, many unreciprocated queries remain and immature notions regarding the impacts of transformational leadership in schools. Furthermore, it is not known if educational heads make use of, or yet discern concerning numerous of tools for augmenting manager efficiency which have been recommended by various scholars.
Whereas the researches are pertinent and valuable, there is modest evidence that these researches in fact impact the performances of school heads. Moreover, there is also modest evidence as to whether the researches manipulate future school leaders are prepared. New and frequently contradictory orientations have erupted as the research of school headship is scrutinized through more varied lenses means (Hallinger, 2003).
The article has enabled me to understand the usefulness of transformational leadership practices in our schools such as promotion of spirit and modeling. Furthermore, it has permitted me to comprehend the outcome of various studies regarding transformational leadership. The article supported my article since it described changes that occur owing to the introduction of transformational form of leadership in our schools. The article was well written since it revealed new facts for instance the fact that it is not known if educational heads make use of or yet discerns numerous tools for augmenting manager efficiency which have been recommended by various scholars.
Behaviors that need to be encouraged in the pre-school setting and at home and strategies for teaching these behaviors to children and for teaching parents how to reinforce
The topic was chosen in order to address the manner in which the behavior a kid while in a classroom affects his/her learning.
Title of the Article: “Teachers’ interactions with children: Why are they so important?”
The behavior of a kid while inside a classroom has been a theme of particular importance in learning.   This has been attributed to the fact that it determines the result of the learning process. Such behaviors include attachment, building of relationships, self-control, exploration and self-esteem.
 Attachment is defined as a feeling of link in between two individuals. This feeling or sense creates the basis for a relationship. Facial appearance, movement of some body parts and oral intermingling do contribute a lot in the formation of attachment. A kid’s initial year is an important era of attachment. It has been found from researches that attachment fashions logic of confidence in a kid.
As far as building of relationships is concerned, a chance to build up positive associations with a kid within a preschool is created whenever a tutor intermingles with a kid. At this setting, the tutor can make use of a number of tactics or strategies in order to build up these positive associations. First, the tutor or the teacher can pay attention to the kid. Second, positive associations can be developed by the teacher making eye contact with the infants. Lastly, the teacher can partake in face-to-face intermingling with the kids.
As much as self-control is concerned, it is typically a vital component of the way kids study. It is quite significant in a kid’s growth. Moreover, self control is essential in the sustenance of societal and ethical order. Self-control is also known as self-discipline and it implies the capability of a person or a kid to internally adjust his/her own conduct instead of relying on others for adjustment or regulation. With regards to exploration, the act of infants participating in artwork is a means of promoting exploration amongst the kids. Art is a very important building block for an infant’s growth and it links the studying process with other subjects offered at the preschool level. Toddlers typically take pleasure in fashioning and observing art. A teacher should come up with means of integrating easy art actions in a preschool. Art is an excellent means of engaging and teaching kids. Once a preschooler finishes an artwork, they feel contented. Meanwhile, self esteem is taken to imply how human beings sense about themselves. The conduct of human beings apparently portrays the feelings. A kid with self esteem is capable of doing something autonomously. Second, s/he is capable of presuming responsibility. Third, s/he will be able to take delight in his/her achievements. Fourth, s/he can manage to try novel duties. Last, the kid can manage to provide aid to other people. It has been shown by various researches that parents are in a good position of encouraging a kid’s self-esteem than any other person. If a parent senses something good regarding his/her kid he should declare it to the kid (Kontos and Wilcox-Herzog, 1997).
The article has enabled me to understand behaviors which determine learning. These behaviors include attachment, building of relationships, self-control, exploration and exploration. The article was well written since it has elaborated clearly the behaviors. It revealed new ideas since beforehand; I couldn’t understand the manner in which the act of a kid partaking in artwork can promote exploration.
The link Between Psychology and Education
            The topic was chosen in order to elaborate on the various impacts of psychology towards education.
Title of the Topic: “The Contribution of Psychology to Education.”
            Psychology may be defined as the science of first, the intelligence, second, characters and last, the conduct of animals. Animals in this case imply domestic animals human beings and wild animals. Human education particularly pertains to specific amendments in first, intelligence, second, characters and last, the conduct of human beings. The problems associated with conduct in human beings are incorporated in 4 main themes. The first theme is Aims. The second theme is materials. The third theme is means while the last theme is methods. Psychology leads to an enhanced comprehension of the objectives of education. It accomplishes this by first and foremost describing them. Second, it attains this by restricting them. Third, it achieves this via demonstrating to human beings things that may be performed and those things that cannot be performed. Last, psychology leads to an enhanced comprehension of objectives of education by recommending novel facets which ought to be made components of them.
Psychology facilitates the making of notions of educational objectives apparent. It achieves this by necessitating human beings to put their ideas of objectives of education within the terms of precise amendments which education is to create. Another means in which psychology facilitates the making of notions of educational objectives apparent is via explaining to human beings the reforms which essentially result to us.
Psychology assists in gauging the likelihood that an objective is achievable. For instance, particular writers regarding education have indicated that the facts, second, the ability and last, customs of conduct that are tutored to the kids of the modern day world are of relevance not just to the modern day generation and also the subsequent generation but to subsequent generations everlastingly. Finally, psychology does first and foremost broaden and second, filters the purpose of education (Thorndike, 1910).
            The article has enabled me to understand the contribution of psychology in education. Furthermore, it has assisted me in discerning the link between psychology and education. The article has addressed my topic tremendously. It has explained clearly the main points regarding the contribution of psychology to education.

Lee, V. & Bryk,A. (1986). Effects of single-sex secondary schools on student achievement and
attitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78:381-95
Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading Educational Change: Reflections on the Practice of Instructional
and Transformational Leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33 (3), 329-351.
Kontos, S., & Wilcox-Herzog, A. (1997). Teachers’ interactions with children: Why are
they so important? Young Children, 52(2), 4-12
Thorndike, E.L. (1910). The Contribution of Psychology to Education. The Journal of
Educational Psychology.1, 5-12.
Wildman, T. M., Magliaro, S. G., Niles, R. A., & Niles, J. A. (1992). Teacher mentoring: An
analysis of roles, activities, and conditions. Journal of Teacher Education, 43(3), 205-

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