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Wednesday, 17 April 2013

Affecting Change Paper

Leadership is the technique of motivating a group of people to work together in order to achieve a common goal. History is evident that all through centuries of civilizations, wars and conflicts, mankind has wanted to perfect this attribute. However, most significantly, leadership differentiates between success and failure. In leadership in action simulation exercise, some problems are encountered. The recognized methods of control and recommended restructuring strategies and effective management practices vary from one organization to the other (Yukl, 2006).

            Organizational culture is a principal constituent of purposeful decision making in universities. For administrators of the university, faculty, and staff to efficiently synchronize a well-organized educational surrounding for health education, progressing cultural appraisal and alteration are necessary. In normal circumstances, it is not possible to separate structure of leadership and culture. While organizations attempt to organize an organizational structure that states the positions to be taken by members of the company, culture cannot be ruled out (Robbins & Judge, 2007).
            Culture defines the roles that match with those positions and the individuals who fill them. The culture of an organization is the division of labour and the patterns of harmonization, communication, flow of actions and prescribed power that direct the performance of the organizational. Accordingly, it is the organizational structure that basically forms the hierarchy in an organization. The organizational structure can be a functional structure that puts together employees according to the functions of particular jobs within the organization (Robbins & Judge, 2007).
            The course content should be used in recommending a restructuring strategy that would ultimately develop the culture and empower employees. In the last ten years or so, studies have examined the concept of culture in various settings in order to make more reliability and productivity in the workplace. Even though culture can be understood in various different ways, in the academic setting, culture can be defined as certain values that leaders try to integrate in their organizations. According to studies, a more conclusive understanding of cultural factors in organizations is essential to interpret what goes on in them. It is also important as it identifies what may be the main concern issues for leaders and the leadership of the organization.
            For a management practice to be effective, the organization management should somehow incorporate the employees in decision making. Experts assert that this is an effective motivational tool that has been utilized by world leading top managers. Managerial cultures are produced in part by leaders, and one of the most important functions of leadership is the formation, organization, and from time to time even annihilation of culture .Furthermore, the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) is an examination utilized by many managers to create a general organizational culture profile. This tool evaluates six proportions of organizational culture, which are based on a hypothetical structure of how organizations work and the kinds of values upon which their cultures are based. The instrument looks for both the present organizational culture and the ideal, expected organizational culture (Cameron & Quinn, 1999).
            The framework also serves as a means of diagnosing and initiating change in the culture those organizations that they builds up as they advance through their life cycles as they survive the pressures from the external environmental. Every organizational culture profile depicts the fundamental attributes such as the style of management, climate, and system of reward, strategic plans leadership, and fundamental principles of the organization. Change of culture consequently needs these various elements to be identified and customized. The detection and modification procedures are major drawbacks encountered by individuals concerned in initiating culture change (Cameron & Quinn, 1999).
            Administering the OCAI to university students in different departments and organizational leaders in this area can find out and reflect on the opinions, approaches, and perceptions of the student population regarding the present and preferred future departmental or the university culture. This, sequentially, can act as a basis for constructive organizational alteration and future growth and productivity.
            Some organizations have a mechanical structure of leadership. The characteristic of this structure is the high level of formalization and centralization in the leadership. The mechanical structure is also characterized by many regulations and procedures. The decision making levels is low but limited in the organization. In addition, there is a vertical communication instead of a horizontal one. The actions are properly defined and are changed only when accepted by the person at the uppermost level. This kind of structure works well in steady environments as they rely on proficient and routine behavior (Yukl, 2006).
            Other organizations use organic structure where, as opposed to the mechanics, decisions are made in a decentralized manner and there is little formality. On top of that, the tasks have fluidity and match to the original situations and requirements of the organization. This kind of structure rewards understanding and appreciates that the information can be anywhere in the organization and not only concentrated in superior management. Consequently, communication is made in all directions without giving significance to a formal hierarchy (Mintzberg, Lampel, Quinn, & Ghoshal, 2004).
            At the university level, culture is referred to as the principles and values of university stakeholders which include administrators, faculty, students, board members and support staff. Principles and values are considered to greatly influence decision making processes at universities and most definitely form personality and organizational behaviors. Principles based on fundamental assumptions and beliefs are passed through narratives, special language and institutional norms. University culture is also considered as the individuality of an organization.         By thorough observation of architecture of the buildings in the campus, facility maintenance, student relations and their dressing, one is able to tell a lot about the university culture. University administration is progressively becoming aware of the theory of culture and its important role in university transformation and growth. Additionally, universities have unique characteristics, which associate strongly with their respective cultures. Contrasting from most business organizations, universities frequently have goals that are indistinct and hard to determine. However, the internal and external players are varied and play surprising roles (Mintzberg, Lampel, Quinn, & Ghoshal, 2004).
            To be specific, internal stakeholders or main players vary from domestic and foreign undergraduates to graduate, professional, and continuing education students. Further, external players comprise of those in the neighbouring community, the political authority, granting and accrediting agencies, unions and the press. In this case, the university can be seen as a complex web, where the responsibility of administrators is to connect components of the web together. When considered as a web, the university can be seen as interweave and incessant, making it possible for communication to take place among individuals who share accountability and power to make decisions (Bartell, 2003).
            Higher Education Report asserted that culture leads to flourishing governance through trust that is built between managers and employees. An effectual university culture teaches and show suitable behaviours, motivates people, and regulates information processing. These are the machinery of culture that can shape internal associations and values. On the other hand, strong values give rise to values about favoured modes of behaviour and enviable objectives. Additionally, as stated earlier, culture is seen as a powerful structure for those making decision. Studies suggests that to be successful, leaders must have an entire understanding of the customs and traditions, both historical and philosophical development, both official and informal political frameworks, myths and language that defines a particular organization. This needs a wide knowledge of the assumptions, principles, norms, and signs that can be seen among members of faculty, staff, and administrators (Olson, 2007).
            An investigation conducted on various universities revealed that their culture was a great tapestry, where the values and practices of trustees, superior administrators, faculty members, campus community members, competitors, and society combine to essentially define the efficiency of the university. A good and profound understanding of tradition and history is essential for an academic social system to blossom. Cameron (1991) looked into the connection among three dimensions of culture of the organizational including strength, congruence and type and organizational efficiency. The results showed that the type of culture was a superior determining factor of an organizational efficiency than either congruence or strength.
            The new size and structure achieved through restructuring could affect the organization, individuals, groups, teams, and the future of the organization. Studies have established some significant traits of a successful organization. According to the report, culture leads to a successful authority when trust between managers and employees exists. Any change in the organization especially that affects the established culture affects the performance of the organization. The report insisted that an effectual culture is supposed to teach and depict appropriate behaviour. It is also supposed to motivate individuals, and rule over the processing of information (Olson, 2007).

Bartell, M. (2003). Internationalization of universities: a university culture-based framework. Higher Education , 45, 43-70.
Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
Mintzberg, H., Lampel, J., Quinn, J. B., & Ghoshal, M. (2004). The strategy process: Concepts, contexts, cases (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Prentice Hall.
Olson, V. (2007). Organizational Culture At The University Level: A Study Using The OCAI Instrument. Journal of College Teaching & Learning , 78-98.
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2007). Organizational behavior (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Yukl, G. A. (2006). Leadership in organizations (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

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