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Monday, 25 March 2013

The spread of nosocomial infection by health workers

A nosocomial infection is described as an infection that develops in a hospital environment, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff. Such infections include fungal and bacterial infections and are aggravated by the reduced resistance of individual patients.” [1] Risk factors Three main criteria broadly enclose the factors predisposing a patient to infection in a hospital setting:
1) Increased susceptibility: evidently, patients admitted in hospitals have poor state of health, which means lower defense quality against bacteria. This group includes elderly, premature babies and immunodeficient (because of drug abuse, illness or irradiation therapy). Additionally patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases have specifically increased chances of respiratory tract infection. 2) Invasive devices: for instance incubation tubes, catheters, surgical drains, and tracheotomy tubes as they have already overcome bodies primary defense line. Patients already colonized on admission are instantly put at greater risk when they undergo an invasive procedure. 3) Medications or treatment (e.g. repeated blood transfusions) themselves make the patient vulnerable to infections, e.g. antacid treatment or antimicrobial therapy (which eliminates competitive flora and allows flourishing of resistant organisms)

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